Commande Linux

Commande Linux

 

Dans ce billet je vais parler de quelques commandes Linux qui peuvent aider à travailler lorsqu'un jours on se retrouve devant un Ubuntu ou un Debian.

Enjoys !

 

Métacaractères du Shell

Les métacaractères accompagne les commandes unix afin d'obtenir un résultat de l'exécution de la commande d'une façon circoncise et précise des informations dans le shell.

Les Métacaractères les plus connus sont :

  • * : Le caractère étoile [altgr + touche 3] peut être substitué par n'importe quel caractère.

  • ? : Le caractère point interrogation [shift+touche interrogation] peut être substitué par un seul caractère.

  • [ ] : Les crochet [il faut mentionner les boutons] il substitue uniquement les caractères qui se trouve dans les crochets.

Exemple

  • Commençons par la commande ls tous seul. Cette commande affiche le contenu du répertoire langage.


Commande ls


  • Nous allons utiliser maintenant le métacaractère * avec la commande ls : ls *.c


commande ls 3.c


Nous constatons que grâce au métacaractère * nous n'avons afficher que tous les fichiers qui finissent par .c

En effet le métacaractère * a remplacé tous la caractères possibles et qui finissent impérativement par .c

  • Nous allons utiliser maintenant le métacaractère ? avec la commande ls : ls p.?


commande ls .p


Le métacaratère ? N'a substituée qu'un seul caractère qui se trouve après le p. C'est pour cette raison il n'a affiché que chercher.pl et select.pl

 

Commande important

Cat fichier : cette commande affiche le contenu d'un fichier sur la sortie standard dans notre cas l'écran.


commande cat


 

cd [chemin] : la commande cd permet d'entrer dans l'endroit où le chemin est spécifié. Dans cette exemple avec la commande

cd Informatique nous avons pu accéder au repertoire Informatique.


commande cd


 

Chmod : la commande Chmod permet de changer le droit d'utilisation d'un dossier en ecriture, lecture et execution.

Exemple

chmod 777 dossier : Donner le droit de lecture, d’écriture et d’exécution à n'importe quel utilisateur.


commande ls .l .d



Le dossier Veto14V2 n'avait le droit de lecture, écriture et exécution que pour le propriétaire du dossier :

drwx------ 11 baher baher 4096 2012-01-12 10:12 veto14V2

Avec chmod 777, le dossier Veto14V2 on peut l'utiliser en écriture, lecture et exécution depuis n'importe quel utilisateur :

drwxrwxrwx 11 baher baher 4096 2012-01-12 10:12 veto14V2


cp : La commande cp permet de copier un fichier ou un dossier d'un emplacement à un autre.

Exemple : Nous avons deux dossiers dossier2 et dossier3 qui se trouvent dans dossier1. Nous voulons copier dossier3 dans dossier2.

cp -R dossier3 dossier2


commande cp


Avec la commande cp nous avons ajouter l'option -R(sinon on ne peut pas copier le dossier3 ), cette option permet de copier tous les sous dossiers de dossier3 vers dossier2.

echo :

Cette commande permet d'envoyé une chaine de caractère sur la sortie sortie standard.

Exemple :

echo blabla


commande echo


ls : Cette commande permet d'afficher la liste de fichier dans un emplacement.


commande ls


mkdir : cette commande permet de créer un dossier

Exemple :

mkdir dossier4


commande mkdir


mv : cette commande permet de déplacer un fichier/dossier d'un emplacement à un autre

Exemple :

mv dossier4 dossier3

Nous avons déplacé le dossier 4 dans dossier3


commande mv


pwd : Cette commande permet d'afficher le chemin actuel du dossier courant.


command pwd


rm : Cette commande permet de supprimer un fichier ou un dossier

Exemple :

dossier3 contient dossier4. Nous voulons supprimer dossier3 :

rm -R dossier3

l'option R(récursive) permet de supprimer les sous dossiers et fichiers.


commande rm



 


 


 


 

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